About this object

History of use

Chinese ceramics were important trade items in Southeast Asia during the 11th - 16th century C.E. Due to their physical characteristics - resonance, vitreosity, durability - Chinese ceramics became fully integrated with the ideology and ritual in Philippine societies and played an important role in all aspects of cultural life (Langrick, p.61). Their functions were varied and included utilitarian, ceremonial, religious roles, as heirlooms, in mortuary ceremonies as burial goods and as items of prestige. As burial goods, imported Chinese ceramics constitute the vast majority of goods excavated in the Philippines. Buried with the deceased, they acted as indicators of wealth, protected the departing spirit from evil and served as provisions for the afterlife. Turned-over plates and bowls were used to cover certain parts of the body - the head and neck, hands, pelvis and feet - establishing a protective area around the body. Much of the excavated ceramics are consciously miniaturized replicas of larger, more functional vessels. These miniatures served as symbolic substitutes as provisions for the afterlife. In addition, small jarlets and bottles and other containers were used for ritual substances (oils, herbs, aromatic resins) and for food offerings necessary for the departing spirit. It is also important to note that much of the trade ceramics excavated in the Philippines show little or no evidence of usage before burial. Locsin divides lead-glazed wares found in the Philippines into two chronologically oriented groups. The earlier group is attributable to the Song (960 -1279 C.E.) and Yuan (1260 -1368 C.E.) Dynasties. According to Locsin, this group exhibits tang-like glazes albeit with non-tang shapes and originated from south China kiln or kilns continuing in the Tang tradition long after the Tang Dynasty (618 - 906 C.E.) had gone into decline (p. 1-3).


This jar is part of a collection of Chinese ceramics found in burial context in the Philippines and was excavated in Lumban, Laguna Province, Philippines.

Cultural context

exchange; status; ceremonial; mortuary

Iconographic meaning

In many indigenous groups of the Philippines, supernatural power was attributed to Chinese ceramics because of the ringing sound emitted when lightly tapped and their vitreous, shiny glazed surfaces which impart an impermeable quality. The ringing sound was seen as a magical voice able to attract the attention of powerful ancestor spirits. Their impermeable and seemingly imperishable surfaces were believed to have great protective power against all kinds of influences, from evil spirits to poisons (Langrick, p. 55-56).

Physical description

A miniature globular jar with a narrow base, medium length neck and medium-sized mouth. There is a groove just below the slightly rounded lips. The bottle is green glazed with a coarse buff body. The foot is rough with a set of inked letter and numbers written on it.